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Share of caste demographics India 2019

The population of India is divided into several groups based on social, educational, and financial statuses. The formation of these groups is a result of the historical social structure of the country. As of 2019, Other Backward Class (OBC) constituted the largest part of the Indian population accounting for more than 40 percent. On the other hand, Schedule Tribes formed less than ten percent of the population.

How prosperous is India’s caste-based society?

India suffers from extreme social and economic inequality. As of 2016, the combined share of Schedule Tribe and Schedule Caste in the affluent population of India was less than 30 percent. Contrary to this, economically and socially stronger groups constituted the major part of the affluent population. Hence, indicating a strong relationship between caste and prosperity.

India’s thoughts on caste-based reservation

The constitution of India provides reservations to the weaker sections of the society for their upliftment and growth. However, the need for reservation has increased with time, making the whole situation even more complicated. People are divided over the existence of a system that provides preference to certain castes or sects.
In a survey conducted in 2016 about providing employment reservation to young adults of Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribe, many people expressed opposition. More than 40 percent of opposition came from upper Hindu caste. Minimum opposition was observed from the people belonging to Schedule Tribe and Schedule Caste.

Share of Indian population in 2019, based on caste*

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Release date

April 2019



Survey time period


Supplementary notes

*According to the source, forward caste includes those castes which are not classified under any of the other groups.
The source does not specify a date of survey. Date given is the date of publication.

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