A new report from the Institute for Science and International Security
has found that 49 countries violated sanctions on North Korea
to varying degrees between March 2014 and September 2017. 13 governments inlcuding Cuba, Egypt, Iran and Syria were involved in military violations. That includes either receiving military training from North Korea or being involved in the import and export of military equipment.
The range of nations involved in breaching non-military sanctions is much broader. Those violations include importing and exporting sanctioned goods and minerals or aiding shipments by re-flagging vessels. Other instances include the involvement of front companies as well as other business activities like financial transactions. The list of nations violating sanctions non-militarily includes China, France, Germany and Japan.
13 other countries violated sanctions in a manner that seems completely inadvertent. North Korea targeted countries including the Canada, Switzerland and the U.S. in an attempt to buy equipment which could potentially have military applications. This strategy has proven successful in the past, with the most famous example occurring in the 1980s when Pyongyang duped U.S. aerospace manufacturer McDonnell Douglas in order to illegally obtain 87 civilian MD-500 helicopters. The North Korean military
later modified them to carry Susong-Po anti-tank missiles and these aircraft are still in active service today.