According to figures released by the European Commission, €140 billion in Value Added Tax (VAT) revenue was lost across the EU in 2018. While the figure is an improvement on previous years, it is expected to grow again due to the coronavirus pandemic. In percentage terms, the VAT gap was highest in Romania (33.8 percent) and lowest in Sweden (0.7 percent).
In absolute terms, however, Italy came first with €35.4 billion in uncollected VAT with the United Kingdom in second place (€23.5 billion) and Germany rounding off the top three (€22 billion). The United Kingdom is included here as it was still a member of the EU in 2018. The VAT Gap is defined as the overall difference between expected VAT revenue and the amount actually collected.